Remembering Doolittle’s Raiders 75 Years Later

On this date 75 years ago, eighty American airmen aboard sixteen B-25B medium bombers launched an attack against the Japanese Home Islands. Despite a series of technical challenges, the raiders, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel James “Jimmy” Doolittle, managed to take off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet and bomb military targets in cities across Japan. Forced to ditch or crash along the coast of China, all but three of the eighty men survived the mission, although eight of those were captured by the Japanese.

This attack­­—the first of its kind—did relatively little material damage, but proved that Japanese cities were within the reach of the American war machine and vulnerable to aerial bombardment. It boosted the morale of an American public left reeling by Pearl Harbor, and was an important turning point in the Pacific War.

The remarkable story of Doolittle’s Raiders is a legendary chapter in the annals of military aviation history. The University Press of Kentucky is now seeking manuscripts for a new Aviation and Airpower series dedicated to such stories.

In this new series, edited by Brian D. Laslie, each volume will bring together leading historians and emerging scholarship in the fields of military aviation and air power history. The series seeks a broad-based look at aerial battles, air warfare, and campaigns from the First World War through modern air operations, but also seeks works on the heritage, technology, and culture particular to the air arm. Biographies of leading figures are also sought. This series seeks to cover the American Air Force, Army, and Naval aviation, but also other world powers and their approaches to the history and study of the air arm.

Brian D. Laslie is Deputy Command Historian at NORAD and US Northern Command as well as an adjunct professor at the U.S. Air Force Academy. He is author of The Air Force Way of War: U.S. Tactics and Training after Vietnam, chosen for the Chief of Staff of the Air Force’s professional reading list in 2016, and Architect of Air Power: General Laurence S. Kuter and the Birth of the US Air Force.

Email Inquiries: Melissa Hammer

AirPowerAnnouncement

Mammoth Cave’s Furry Fliers

It’s Bat Appreciation Day! To celebrate, we’re sharing a special excerpt from the newly released Mammoth Cave Curiosities: A Guide to Rockphobia, Dating, Saber-toothed Cats, and Other Subterranean Marvels by author and cave guide Colleen O’Connor Olson.

olson-cover-for-blogIn this charming book, Colleen O’Connor Olson takes readers on a tour through a labyrinth of topics concerning the earth’s longest known cave system. She discusses scientific subjects such as the fossils of prehistoric animals and the secret lives of subterranean critters, and she provides essential information on dating in the cave (the age of rocks and artifacts, not courtship). Olson also explores Mammoth Cave’s rich history, covering its use as the world’s first tuberculosis sanatorium as well as its operation as a saltpeter mine during the War of 1812, and shares the inspirational story of the park’s first female ranger.

Throughout, Olson offers up humorous accounts of celebrity visits and astounding adventures and even includes a chapter dedicated to jokes told in the cave over the years. Whether you’re visiting the national park, thinking about visiting, or just curious about a place recognized as one of the world’s greatest natural wonders, don’t miss this delightful guide to the wild and wonderful subterranean world of Mammoth Cave.

In this excerpt from Mammoth Cave Curiosities, Olson shares general bat facts, and information about the furry fliers of Mammoth Cave:


Flying Residents: Bats

About one thousand different species of bats in many genera and families make up the order Chiroptera, which means “hand wing.” Chiroptera has two suborders, Megachiroptera (megabats) and Microchiroptera (microbats). Megabats tend to be bigger than the microbats. All American bats are microbats.

Prior to white-nose syndrome, biologists estimated that two thousand to three thousand bats lived in Mammoth Cave. That’s not many bats for such a long cave, but in the past the cave was a very large bat hibernaculum. Dr. Merlin Tuttle of Bat Conservation International looked at bat stain—dark stains on the limestone where bats hung, similar to the polish where many people touch rocks—in Little Bat Avenue and Rafinesque Hall in 1997 and estimated that as many as nine to thirteen million bats hibernated there in the past.

Bats also live in other caves, trees, and structures in the park.

Echolocation

Contrary to the old saying “blind as a bat,” bats can see. But on dark nights and in caves, they rely on echolocation (sonar) to navigate. In echolocation, a bat uses its mouth or nose to make high-frequency sounds that humans can’t hear. If the sound hits something, it echoes back to the bat. The bat can tell the distance, size, shape, texture, and speed of the object based on the echo and thus can avoid it or eat it.

All microbats have echolocation, but, with a couple exceptions, megabats do not.

bats

Gray bats hanging out

How Bats Know When It’s Night

Most animals know day from night by the sun. Many bats live in trees or buildings in the summer, so they can see the sun go down, but in the cave it looks like night all the time, so how do cave bats know when it’s dark outside?

Several things may cue the bats that it’s time to get up. The previous night’s meal of insects is digested, tummies are empty, so hungry bats wake up.

Perhaps bats wake up when they’ve had enough sleep. The length of days changes from spring to fall, but bats adjust as nights get shorter or longer.

Colonial bats may rely on social cues. Some bats roost near enough to entrances to see it getting dark. Bats farther back in the cave may hear the entrance-dwelling bats flying or vocalizing, which signals them to get up for dinner. The tricolored bats frequently seen in Mammoth Cave roost solo, so this method probably doesn’t work for them.


Colleen O’Connor Olson has been guiding tours at Mammoth Cave National Park for over twenty years. She is the author of Scary Stories of Mammoth Cave, Nine Miles to Mammoth Cave: The Story of the Mammoth Cave Railroad, Mammoth Cave by Lantern Light, and Prehistoric Cavers of Mammoth Cave.

Purchase her latest book here.

Get Crafted at The Market this Weekend

 

Where can you find some of your favorite Kentucky/Regional books, fine arts and crafts, live music, specialty food, and much, much more? The 35th annual Kentucky Crafted: The Market 2017 will be held April 22-23 at the Lexington Convention Center. Stop Mommy Goose final front coverREV.inddby our booth #102 to check out some of our new titles, and meet Mike Norris, who’ll be signing copies of Mommy Goose, from 12 – 2 pm on Saturday, April 22.

More than 200 exhibitors will be on hand at the event, which was chosen as the No. 1 Fair & Festival by readers of AmericanStyle Magazine four years in a row, and also named a top 10 event by the Kentucky Tourism Council and a top 20 event by the Southeast Tourism Society.

Here’s a sampling of some of our new releases that will be available at our booth during Kentucky Crafted:

 

Classic Kentucky Recipes

Schmid Cover for blogWith the weather warming up, it’s almost time to bring out the grill and cook up some homemade barbecue. There’s nothing like getting a few friends together and fixing up an old family recipe, but if you’re looking for something new to spice up your table, look no further than Albert W. A. Schmid’s upcoming book, Burgoo, Barbecue, and Bourbon: A Kentucky Culinary Trinity.

Burgoo, barbecue, and bourbon have long been recognized as the trinity of good taste in Kentucky. Drawing from past and present sources from across Kentucky, Schmid offers both new and forgotten versions of some favorite regional dishes while sharing the storied traditions that surround them. The following recipes are just a small taste of the culinary journey that Schmid has to offer:


 

If you don’t have a grill or simply want a faster way to make barbecue after a long day at work, this recipe for barbecue chicken can be cooked completely in the oven. This recipe is similar to one that was published the Franklinton Friends and Family cookbook by the Franklinton Baptist Church, located in Pleasureville in Henry County, Kentucky.

006Chicken Barbecue Sauce

1 whole chicken, fryer

1/2 cup margarine

juice of 1 lemon

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon pepper

1 1/2 tablespoons garlic salt

2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce

Preheat oven to 450 degrees F.

Melt the margarine with the rest of the ingredients. Let the mixture come to a boil, then remove from heat and use it to baste a cut-up fryer . Place the chicken in a greased baking dish in the oven for 20 minutes. Lower oven temperature to 350 degrees F. Remove the juices from around the chicken; add the rest of the sauce and baste often over the next 40 minutes.


 

Burgoo is a savory stew that traditionally includes meat—usually smoked—from at least one “bird of the air,” at least one “beast of the field,” and as many vegetables as the cook wants to add. There are many versions of various traditional recipes, but there are also new and delicious innovations when it comes to this Kentucky classic. The following dish is adapted from a recipe from Turf Catering, which ran the Keeneland concessions in 2006.

Kentucky Burgoo002

18–20 servings

oil

3 pounds stew meat

1 teaspoon ground thyme

1 teaspoon sage

1 teaspoon oregano

1 teaspoon garlic, minced

1 cup celery, diced

1 cup carrot, diced

1 cup onion, diced

12-ounce can diced tomatoes in juice

2 16-ounce cans mixed vegetables

7-ounce can tomato puree

2 pounds fresh okra, sliced

1 tablespoon beef base

1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

1 cup sherry

3 pounds potatoes, peeled and diced

cornstarch

Heat the oil in a large Dutch oven. Brown the stew meat with the herbs and garlic. Add the remaining ingredients, except the cornstarch, and cover with water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer for at least 3 hours. Adjust seasonings to taste and thicken with cornstarch.

 


 

Of course, no Kentucky meal is complete without desert, so why not mix desert with Kentucky’s own signature bourbon? This recipe for Kentucky Whiskey Cake is based on Derbytown Winners Cookbook, which was published by the Crescent Hill Woman’s Club. The Original Kentucky Whiskey Cake was credited to Mrs. T. G. Stigall.

Original Kentucky Whiskey Cake015

15–20 servings

5 cups flour, sifted

1 pound sugar

1 cup brown sugar

3/4 pound butter

6 eggs, separated and beaten

1 pint Kentucky bourbon

1 pound candied cherries, cut in pieces

2 teaspoons nutmeg

1 teaspoon baking powder

1 pound shelled pecans

1/2 pound golden raisins, halved, or 1/2 pound dates, chopped

Soak cherries and raisins in bourbon overnight.

Preheat oven to 250–275 degrees F.

Cream the butter and sugars until fluffy. Add the egg yolks and beat well. To the butter and egg mixture, add the soaked fruit and the remaining liquid alternately with the flour. Reserve a small amount of flour for the nuts. Add the nutmeg and baking powder. Fold in the beaten egg whites. Add the lightly floured pecans last. Bake in a large greased tube pan that has been lined with 3 layers of greased brown paper. Bake for 3–4 hours. Watch baking time carefully.

Store any leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator.


Albert W. A. Schmid is the director of Culinary Arts and Hospitality Management at Guilford Technical Community College in Jamestown, North Carolina, and is the former director of the Hotel-Restaurant Management and Hospitality Management Departments at Sullivan University’s National Center for Hospitality Studies in Louisville, Kentucky. He is the author of The Old Fashioned: An Essential Guide to the Original Whiskey Cocktail, The Manhattan Cocktail, the award-winning The Kentucky Bourbon Cookbook, and the award-winning The Beverage Manager’s Guide to Wines, Beers and Spirits.

Purchase book here.

 

Keepers of the Seeds

seedsSaving seeds to plant for next year’s crop has been key to survival around the globe for millennia. In Kentucky, seed saving emerged as an essential agriculture practice among Native Americans as early as 3,500 years ago, and the seeds traded by these early farmers to European settlers created the basis for the diets of generations of Kentuckians. In the last century, however, commercial seed production by multinational companies aimed to select varieties that would last longer on shelves and that were more suited to the demands of mechanical harvest and long-distance transportation. As a result, many traditional seed varieties, representing generations of meticulous effort spent maintaining flavor and quality, were brought almost to extinction. More recently, farmers and gardeners who have been quietly conserving Kentucky’s heirloom plants are joining a growing movement to preserve the food heritage of the Bluegrass State.

In Kentucky Heirloom Seeds: Growing, Eating, Saving, Bill Best explores our rich history of saving seeds from the roots of the practice among Native Americans to current efforts aimed at recovering and saving seed varieties that might otherwise be lost. Writing with Dobree Adams, Best passes on his extensive first-hand knowledge of seeds and draws on interviews with veteran members of the seed-saving community to examine the unique challenges of raising heirloom varieties, to celebrate the traditions of the practice, and to expose the enormous cultural impact and social relevance of responsibly and traditionally sourced food.

Best gives practical tips on saving, planting, and growing heirloom beans and tomatoes, and provides easy-to-follow instructions on how to properly collect, ferment, and dry heirloom seeds from season to season. He also shares his favorite varieties for the table, such as the Pink Tip Greasy bean, unique for the pink tip which develops on the end of the pod as the bean matures, and the Aunt Cecil’s Green tomato, which remains bright green even when fully ripe. In addition, Best includes a brief guide to various heirloom Kentucky and Appalachian beans and tomatoes, sketching out the distinctions and virtues of each.

Beyond providing an examination of the processes and history of collecting and cultivating seeds, Best highlights the high price we pay for cheaper produce and the implications of seed saving for the future of sustainable agriculture. In an age when modern technology is used to mass-produce uniformly mediocre fruits and vegetables devoid of nutritional value, Best suggests a return to the time-tested traditions of raising heirloom plants to preserve flavor and quality. While celebrating seed saving as an important element of Kentucky’s history and agricultural tradition, Kentucky Heirloom Seeds also looks to the future, proposing gardening and seed saving as means to regain a more balanced relationship with our foods and food sources.


The Colorful World of Kentucky Heirloom Seeds

Heirloom tomatoes come in many colors, including red, pink, yellow, green-when-ripe, brown, black, and purple. Their various sugar-acid combinations give them distinctive flavors.

best1

Yellow tomatoes tend to be high in sugars. Although they are thought to have a lower acid content, the sugars simply overpower the acids and give the tomatoes a sweet flavor. Developed by Claude Brown of Pike County, Kentucky, Claude Brown’s Yellow Giant is actually a deep orange color and can weigh three pounds or more.

best2

Heirloom red tomatoes are high in acid and are pleasing to a lot of people. Best’s favorite red tomato is the Zeke Dishman, a very large and tasty tomato that often weighs over two pounds. It was developed by Zeke Dishman of Windy in Wayne County over several decades.

best3

Pink tomatoes tend to be high in acids and sugars—what many refer to as “old-fashioned” flavor. The pinks are Bill Best’s personal favorites, and the Vinson Watts tomato is his favorite one of all.

best4

Best’s favorite green-when-ripe tomato is Aunt Cecil’s Green, a Ken- tucky heirloom with good flavor. This variety develops a yellow tint on the blossom end as it becomes fully ripe. It sells well at farmers’ markets and has a very good flavor but does not have a long shelf life.

best5

Best’s favorite black tomato (and a favorite of his customers) is the Blackberry, a large and tasty tomato weighing about twelve to sixteen ounces. The original seeds were given to Bill by John Allen of Cartersville, Kentucky.

 

 


 

Great War Reads

One hundred years ago today, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Four days later, Congress voted in favor of a war declaration and the U.S. formally entered the First World War. In honor of the centennial, we’re featuring some of our favorite releases about WWI, both before the U.S. entrance and after, on the home front and on the western front.


My Life before the World War, 1860–1917: A Memoirpershing4.indd

Few American military figures are more revered than General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing (1860–1948), who is most famous for leading the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. The only soldier besides George Washington to be promoted to the highest rank in the U.S. Army (General of the Armies), Pershing was a mentor to the generation of generals who led America’s forces during the Second World War.

Though Pershing published a two-volume memoir, My Experiences in the World War, and has been the subject of numerous biographies, few know that he spent many years drafting a memoir of his experiences prior to the First World War. In My Life Before the World War, 1860–1917, John T. Greenwood rescues this vital resource from obscurity, making Pershing’s valuable insights into key events in history widely available for the first time.

Purchase Here


york.final.inddAlvin York: A New Biography of the Hero of the Argonne

Alvin C. York (1887–1964)—devout Christian, conscientious objector, and reluctant hero of World War I—is one of America’s most famous and celebrated soldiers. Known to generations through Gary Cooper’s Academy Award-winning portrayal in the 1941 film Sergeant York, York is credited with the capture of 132 German soldiers on October 8, 1918, in the Meuse-Argonne region of France—a deed for which he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

At war’s end, the media glorified York’s bravery but some members of the German military and a soldier from his own unit cast aspersions on his wartime heroics. Historians continue to debate whether York has received more recognition than he deserves. A fierce disagreement about the location of the battle in the Argonne forest has further complicated the soldier’s legacy.

In Alvin York, Douglas V. Mastriano sorts fact from myth in the first full-length biography of York in decades. He meticulously examines York’s youth in the hills of east Tennessee, his service in the Great War, and his return to a quiet civilian life dedicated to charity. By reviewing artifacts recovered from the battlefield using military terrain analysis, forensic study, and research in both German and American archives, Mastriano reconstructs the events of October 8 and corroborates the recorded accounts. On the eve of the WWI centennial, Alvin York promises to be a major contribution to twentieth-century military history.

Purchase Here


The Christmas Truce: Myth, Memory, and the First World Warchristmas_truce_final.indd

In ate December 1914, German and British soldiers on the western front initiated a series of impromptu, unofficial ceasefires. Enlisted men across No Man’s Land abandoned their trenches and crossed enemy lines to sing carols, share food and cigarettes, and even play a little soccer. Collectively known as the Christmas Truce, these fleeting moments of peace occupy a mythical place in remembrances of World War I. Yet new accounts suggest that the heartwarming tale ingrained in the popular imagination bears little resemblance to the truth.

In this detailed study, Terri Blom Crocker provides the first comprehensive analysis of both scholarly and popular portrayals of the Christmas Truce from 1914 to present. From books by influential historians to the Oscar-nominated French film Joyeux Noel (2006), this new examination shows how a variety of works have both explored and enshrined this outbreak of peace amid overwhelming violence. The vast majority of these accounts depict the soldiers as acting in defiance of their superiors. Crocker, however, analyzes official accounts as well as private letters that reveal widespread support among officers for the détentes. Furthermore, she finds that truce participants describe the temporary ceasefires not as rebellions by disaffected troops but as acts of humanity and survival by professional soldiers deeply committed to their respective causes.

The Christmas Truce studies these ceasefires within the wider war, demonstrating how generations of scholars have promoted interpretations that ignored the nuanced perspectives of the many soldiers who fought. Crocker’s groundbreaking, meticulously researched work challenges conventional analyses and sheds new light on the history and popular mythology of the War to End All Wars.

Purchase Here


9780813168012Kentucky and the Great War: World War I on the Home Front

From five thousand children marching in a parade, singing, “Johnnie get your hoe, Mary dig your row,” to communities banding together to observe Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays, Kentuckians were loyal supporters of their country during the First World War. Kentucky had one of the lowest rates of draft dodging in the nation, and the state increased its coal production by 50 percent during the war years. Overwhelmingly, the people of the Commonwealth set aside partisan interests and worked together to help the nation achieve victory in Europe.

David J. Bettez provides the first comprehensive analysis of the impact of the Great War on Bluegrass society, politics, economy, and culture, contextualizing the state’s involvement within the national experience. His exhaustively researched study examines the Kentucky Council of Defense—which sponsored local war-effort activities—military mobilization and preparation, opposition and dissent, and the role of religion and higher education in shaping the state’s response to the war. It also describes the efforts of Kentuckians who served abroad in military and civilian capacities, and postwar memorialization of their contributions.

Kentucky and the Great War
 explores the impact of the conflict on women’s suffrage, child labor, and African American life. In particular, Bettez investigates how black citizens were urged to support a war to make the world “safe for democracy” even as their civil rights and freedoms were violated in the Jim Crow South. This engaging and timely social history offers new perspectives on an overlooked aspect of World War I.

Purchase Here


Lossberg’s War: The World War I Memoirs of a German Chief of Staffuntitled

General Fritz von Lossberg (1868–1942) directed virtually all the major German defensive battles on the Western Front during the First World War. Hailed as “the Lion of the Defensive,” he was an extremely influential military tactician and, unlike many other operations officers of his era, was quick to grasp the changes wrought by technology.

Now available for the first time in English, Lossberg’s memoir explains how he developed, tested, and implemented his central principles—flexibility, decentralized control, and counterattack—which were based on a need to adapt to shifting conditions on the battlefield. Lossberg first put his theory of elastic defense combined with defense-in-depth into practice during the Battle of Arras (April–May 1917), where it succeeded. At the Battle of Passchendaele (June–November 1917), his achievements on the field proved the feasibility of his strategy of employing a thinly manned front line that minimized the number of soldiers exposed to artillery fire. Lossberg’s tactical modernizations have become essential components of army doctrine, and Lossberg’s War: The World War I Memoirs of A German Chief of Staff will take readers inside the mind of one of the most significant military innovators of the twentieth century.

Purchase Here


More books about military history can be found in our American Warriors  and Battles and Campaigns series

Feud: Bette and Miriam

Bette Davis’s feud with Joan Crawford is famous and is being well-documented on FX’s Feud: Bette and Joan, but Crawford was not the only actress with whom Davis established a rivalry. In this excerpt from the forthcoming Miriam Hopkins: Life and Films of a Hollywood Rebel, Allan R. Ellenberger details the central points of the feud that erupted between Hopkins and Davis on the set of 1939’s The Old Maid, perhaps an early hint at the rivalry that would erupt between Davis and Crawford some two decades later:


Whether described as a ‘woman’s picture,’ ‘tearjerkers’ or a ‘soap opera,’ the melodrama has been a standard since the early days of the silent cinema. The maternal melodrama, a sub-genre featuring plots of self-sacrificing, mother-loving figures who suffer adversity best describes Miriam’s first film at Warner Bros. – The Old Maid. Similar films include The Sin of Madelon Claudet, Imitation of Life, and the twice-filmed Stella Dallas.

In the late 1930s and into the following decade, Bette Davis was a staple in the melodramatic maternal film. Along with The Old Maid’s director Edmund Goulding, executives paired them in 1937’s That Certain Woman, about a sacrificial mother following an annulled marriage. Then two years after The Old Maid, they made The Great Lie where newly-widowed Davis offers to bring up the child of her husband’s pregnant ex-wife (Mary Astor). The Old Maid shared a similar plot-line: Davis as a cynical ‘old maid’ spinster who gives her illegitimate child to her self-centered cousin (Hopkins) to raise.

Filming began on Wednesday, March 15, 1939, with Edmund Goulding directing. Goulding knew Davis well, directing her in two films at Warners: the above mentioned That Certain Woman and, the film Miriam hoped would be hers, Dark Victory. But he knew Miriam longer, beginning with the New York social circles in the late 1920s, and later at Astoria Studios where they both were making films.

The first day, the cast reported to the sound stage at nine o’clock, but Miriam was ten minutes late, wearing a replica of a dress Davis wore in Jezebel [a film which Davis won an Oscar for and which Miriam believed should have been her starring role]. Davis claimed that Miriam hoped she would “blow my stack at this.”

Both Miriam and Davis suggested to Goulding how they could improve their roles. At first, unit manager Al Alleborn reported that each one had “little suggestions in the working out of scenes and getting the characterizations of their parts which did cause a slight delay on the first day, but company is now going smoothly.” It was short-lived.

The first two days, Goulding filmed the original opening scene in Mr. Painter’s lingerie shop, where the cousins and their grandmother are buying Delia’s trousseau. However, Davis wanted to enhance her role at Miriam’s expense. William Wyler had taught her that an actor’s first appearance in a film established their character. When they completed the lingerie shop sequence, Davis wanted to cut the scene. Instead, the opening sequence would be Delia’s wedding day.

The following day, Friday, March 17, Miriam was on Stage 15 at nine o’clock, an hour earlier than Davis. Assuming that she had already established her character in the lingerie shop, Miriam played the scene at a lower register. She had no idea this scene would be the audience’s first glimpse of her. So when Davis entered, excited and enthusiastic, people noticed.9780813174310

A month later, when Goulding cut the lingerie shop scene, Miriam sensed what Davis had done. By then she was using “every trick in the book” to rile her co-star. Davis was fascinated, “watching them appear one by one.” Miriam’s scene-stealing stunts were endless: a button would come undone, or a hairpin would fall out. She would change her position in close-ups and then inch her way upstage so Davis would turn away from the camera, sometimes at the expense of losing her light.

Considering Miriam needed this film to salvage her career, this unprofessional—and costly—behavior could finish her. She was fighting to be popular with audiences but allowed her loathing of Bette Davis to rule her emotions.

Davis admitted Miriam was a good actress and was perfect for the role, so it baffled her why she behaved as she did. Did Davis know Miriam was seeking revenge for her aggressive acts, including stealing Jezebel, the Academy Award that went with it and the weekend fling with her husband? It’s unlikely. Instead, Davis played dumb and was the victim, claiming she controlled her temper during the day, but at night she “screamed at everybody.”

The Davis-Hopkins thespian duel threatened innocent bystanders as well. Rand Brooks, who also appeared that year in the classic Gone with the Wind, played Delia’s son, Jim Ralston, Jr. He later recalled both actresses tried directing him. “One would tell me one thing, (and) then the other would say something else. They were both so anxious to look good and be better than the other. Edmund Goulding just stood by and was amused by the whole thing.”

Goulding tried to be a mediator. He respected Davis, but he was Miriam’s friend. To his credit, he tried keeping the peace. “Whatever respect they had for each other as professionals was quickly thrown out of the window when one or the other didn’t get her way,” Goulding said of the two women. “If it wasn’t lighting, it was costuming or camera angles or lines. There were times they behaved like perfect little bitches, but I loved them both, and I think the admiration was likewise.”

Unit manager Al Alleborn acknowledged Goulding’s struggles. “Working with two impossible people like Davis and Hopkins, many things have to be ironed out… Goulding has a tough job on this picture with these two girls. Not that they want to cause him any trouble or worry, but each one is fighting for a scene when they go into it.”

The rumors spread about friction on the set. The Warner’s publicity department concocted a scheme that Davis and Miriam agreed to. Davis told a reporter “Hoppy [her nickname for Miriam] and I are going to get a couple of pairs of boxing gloves and pose for a picture glowering at each other like a couple of fighters in their corners. It’s the only answer we can make to all the nonsense about how we can’t get along.”

In their silk dresses and bodices and shawls, they donned boxing gloves and posed for a picture with a worried-looking Edmund Goulding between them. Hedda Hopper reported the actresses had a sense of humor. Even so, she “never knew two blondes yet who were real palsie- walsies!”

Miriam’s sense of humor was waning; the staged photograph made matters worse. “Now they call me ‘Hardboiled Hopkins. I’m not.” she insisted, “I’m not temperamental and not hard to get along with. It’s those boxing gloves that caused all the trouble. But everyone forgot it was just a gag. They took it seriously.”

Hal Wallis, who witnessed their antics, confirmed their hatred for each other was real. “It was an incredible feud, just fantastic,” Wallis claimed in an interview years later. “They would each prolong their arrival on the set, trying to make the other wait. I think later the studio tried to claim it was all just publicity, but it was the real thing. Those girls hated each other.”

excerpted from Miriam Hopkins: Life and Films of a Hollywood Rebel (Kentucky, 2017)

Read more about Hopkins and Davis in Miriam Hopkins: Life and Films of a Hollywood Rebel, available here.